**TEFL 2**

**NUMBERED HEAD TOGETHER**

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1. Elsi
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2. Endah
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3. Gangsar
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4. Marta
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5. Fiky
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6. Oska
Rahayu R : 090105155

**ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT**

**TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY**

**MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF PURWOKERTO**

**2013**

**A.**

**CONCEPT**

·

**What is it?**
Numbered head together is a
cooperative learning strategy that holds each student accountable for learning
the material. In this technique each student of group gets the number and their
own tasks, but they should decide the best and the appropriate answer for the
group by considering each answer of the members of the group. Number Head
Together developed first by Spencer Kagan (1993) to involve more student in
learning material which consist in a lesson and to know their knowledge about
the material given. Students are placed in a groups and each person is given a
number (from one to the maximum number in each group). The teacher poses a
question and students “put their heads together” to figure out the answer. The
teacher calls a specific number to respond as spokesperson to the group. By
having students work together in a group, this strategy ensures that each
member knows the answer to problems or questions asked by the teacher. Because
no one knows which number will be called, all team members must be prepared.

·

**Why is it Important?**
This cooperative learning strategy
promotes discussion and both individual and group accountability. This strategy
is beneficial for reviewing and integrating subject matter. Students with
special needs often benefit when this strategy is used. After direct
instruction of the material, the group supports each member and provides
opportunities for practice, rehearsal, and discussion of content material.

Grouping learning methods encourage
students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and to learn
from one another, as well as from the instructor (Terenzini & Pascarella,
1994).

**B.**

**STEP/PROCEDURES**

According to Lie (2010 : 60), there
are several step in implementing Number Head Together, they are :

1. Divide
the students into group of four and give each one a number from one to four

2. Pose
a question or a problem to the class

3. Have
students gather to think about the question and to make sure everyone in their
group understands and can give an answer

4. Ask
the question and call out a number randomly

5. The
students with that number raise their hands, and when called on, the students
answers for his or her team

According to Trianto (2007 : 62),
the teacher use four phase structure to asking the question for students in the
class, they are :

a. Phase
I : Numbering

In this phase the
teacher divide the student into some groups consist of 3 to 5 person and each
member of groups given number from 1 to 5

b. Phase
II : Asking Question

Pose a question or a
problem to the class and give the groups fifteen minutes oh “Head Together”

c. Phase
III : Heads Together

The students put their
head together to decide one appropriate answer making sure that every group member
know the agreed upon answer.

d. Phase
IV : Answering the Question

The teacher calls a number at random and
only student with the number respond to the question

**C.**

**ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES**

There are some advantages and disadvantages of
Numbered Head Together (NHT).

A. The
advantages of Numbered head Together (NHT) are:

1. Positive
interdependence

The
students are able to learn from each other. They must also work together to
ensure there is one product to their learning. They must check that everyone
can understand and answer the question.

2. Individual
accountability

Students
are accountable to each other for sharing ideas. The student may also be
required to share their partner’s ideas to another pair or whole group. Every
student must be able to give the group response to the question.

3. Equal
participation

Each
student within the group has an equal opportunity to share. It is possible that
one student may try to dominate. The teacher can check this does not happen.

4. Simultaneous
interaction

High degrees of interaction at any one
moment all of the students will be actively engaged in purposeful speaking and
listening

5. Multilevel

This
kind learning can be used in any kinds of level, but of course it has to be
adjusted with the material given.

B. The
disadvantages of Numbered Head Together (NHT) are:

1. The smart student will tend to dominate so that it can make the
weak students have interior and passive attitude.

2. The discussion process can go smoothly if there are students just
simply copy the work of smart students without having an adequate
understanding.

3. If
there are homogenous group so it will be unfair for the group contained of weak
students.

4. Likelihood
that number is called, called again by the teacher, means that not all members
of the group called by the teacher.

**D.**

**IMPLEMENTATION**

There are some uses of Numbered Head Together

**a.**

**Reading**

Comprehension
questions can be posed to groups, and students can work together to find the
answers. For example, when reading a story, students can be given the task of
analyzing one of the characters. They can be asked questions such as,
"Which character traits are stated directly, and which are implied by the
author?" and "What information do you get from the character's speech
and actions?"

**b.**

**Writing**

Students can
evaluate the quality of a piece of writing using a rubric. Have students review
the writing as a group and assign scores as a group. Ask them to respond with
their scores and rationale using the numbered heads together strategy.

**c.**

**Math**

Numbered heads
together can be used when solving math problems. Ask questions such as
"What are the facts in this problem?" "Which strategy would be
most appropriate?" and "What solution did your group agree on?"

**d.**

**Social Studies**

NHT can be used
after reading a chapter in a text, or after material has been presented. Ask
clarifying questions about the text and have students find and discuss the
answers. When groups are ready, review the answers using this strategy.

**e.**

**Science**

NHT can be used in
preparation for a test or quiz. Allow time for students to study together in
their groups and perhaps create questions that might be on the test or quiz.
Using the numbered heads together strategy, ask questions about the material
that will be on the test or quiz.

We can
use Numbered Head Together for teaching reading, writing, speaking and any
subjects out of English skills. Moreover, this is the example of implementing
NHT in reading class for comprehending the text. Comprehension
questions can be posed to groups, and might the students working together to
find the answers. For example, when reading a story, such as a kind of
narrative text like Cinderella and Snow White students can be given the task of
analyzing one of the characters. They can be asked questions such as,
"Which character traits are stated directly, and which are implied by the
author?" and "What information do you get from the character's speech
and actions?"

There are some steps for implementing NHT in reading class
to comprehend the text, as follow:

1. Number off the students in each group, up to four. If one group is
smaller than the others have no. 3 answer for no. 4 as well. The teacher can
give numbers or students can give numbers themselves.

2. Teacher asks the students a question or sets a problem to solve or
the teacher or the students ask a question based on the text the class is
reading. It must be stressed that everyone in the group must be able to
participate and answer the question.

3. Give the enough limited time to the groups to do the task.

4. Students in each group put their head together to come up with an
answer or answer. They should also be ready to supply support for their
answer(s) from the text and/or from other knowledge.

5. The teacher calls a number from 1 to 4. The person with that number
gives and explains their group’s answer.

**E.**

**REFERENCES**

Slavin, R. E. (2005).

*Cooperative Learning*. Bandung: Nusa Media.
Trianto. (2010).

*Mendesain Pembelajaran Innovatif- Progresif*. Jakarta: Kencana.
Isjoni. (2011). C

*ooperative Learning: Efektifitas Pembelajaran Kelompok*. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Lie, A. (2008).

*Cooperative Learning*. Jakarta: Grasindo.
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