Senin, 01 April 2013

Numbered Head Together


TEFL 2
NUMBERED HEAD TOGETHER







Compiled by:
1.      Elsi Anjarsari                  : 1001050145
2.      Endah Kartika Sari        : 1001050136
3.      Gangsar Basuki              : 1001050148
4.      Marta Septia Rahayu     : 1001050161
5.      Fiky Milati                     : 0901050061
6.      Oska Rahayu R              : 090105155


ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF PURWOKERTO
2013
A.    CONCEPT

·         What is it?
Numbered head together is a cooperative learning strategy that holds each student accountable for learning the material. In this technique each student of group gets the number and their own tasks, but they should decide the best and the appropriate answer for the group by considering each answer of the members of the group. Number Head Together developed first by Spencer Kagan (1993) to involve more student in learning material which consist in a lesson and to know their knowledge about the material given. Students are placed in a groups and each person is given a number (from one to the maximum number in each group). The teacher poses a question and students “put their heads together” to figure out the answer. The teacher calls a specific number to respond as spokesperson to the group. By having students work together in a group, this strategy ensures that each member knows the answer to problems or questions asked by the teacher. Because no one knows which number will be called, all team members must be prepared.

·         Why is it Important?
This cooperative learning strategy promotes discussion and both individual and group accountability. This strategy is beneficial for reviewing and integrating subject matter. Students with special needs often benefit when this strategy is used. After direct instruction of the material, the group supports each member and provides opportunities for practice, rehearsal, and discussion of content material.
Grouping learning methods encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and to learn from one another, as well as from the instructor (Terenzini & Pascarella, 1994).

B.     STEP/PROCEDURES
According to Lie (2010 : 60), there are several step in implementing Number Head Together, they are :
1.      Divide the students into group of four and give each one a number from one to four
2.      Pose a question or a problem to the class
3.      Have students gather to think about the question and to make sure everyone in their group understands and can give an answer
4.      Ask the question and call out a number randomly
5.      The students with that number raise their hands, and when called on, the students answers for his or her team
According to Trianto (2007 : 62), the teacher use four phase structure to asking the question for students in the class, they are :
a.       Phase I : Numbering
In this phase the teacher divide the student into some groups consist of 3 to 5 person and each member of groups given number from 1 to 5
b.      Phase II : Asking Question
Pose a question or a problem to the class and give the groups fifteen minutes oh “Head Together”
c.       Phase III : Heads Together
The students put their head together to decide one appropriate answer making sure that every group member know the agreed upon answer.
d.      Phase IV : Answering the Question
The teacher calls a number at random and only student with the number respond to the question



C.    ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
There are some advantages and disadvantages of Numbered Head Together (NHT).
A.    The advantages of Numbered head Together (NHT) are:
1.      Positive interdependence
The students are able to learn from each other. They must also work together to ensure there is one product to their learning. They must check that everyone can understand and answer the question.
2.      Individual accountability
Students are accountable to each other for sharing ideas. The student may also be required to share their partner’s ideas to another pair or whole group. Every student must be able to give the group response to the question.
3.      Equal participation
Each student within the group has an equal opportunity to share. It is possible that one student may try to dominate. The teacher can check this does not happen.
4.      Simultaneous interaction
High degrees of interaction at any one moment all of the students will be actively engaged in purposeful speaking and listening
5.      Multilevel
This kind learning can be used in any kinds of level, but of course it has to be adjusted with the material given.

B.     The disadvantages of Numbered Head Together (NHT) are:
1.      The smart student will tend to dominate so that it can make the weak students have interior and passive attitude.
2.      The discussion process can go smoothly if there are students just simply copy the work of smart students without having an adequate understanding.
3.      If there are homogenous group so it will be unfair for the group contained of weak students.
4.      Likelihood that number is called, called again by the teacher, means that not all members of the group called by the teacher.




















D.    IMPLEMENTATION

There are some uses of Numbered Head Together
a.      Reading
Comprehension questions can be posed to groups, and students can work together to find the answers. For example, when reading a story, students can be given the task of analyzing one of the characters. They can be asked questions such as, "Which character traits are stated directly, and which are implied by the author?" and "What information do you get from the character's speech and actions?"
b.      Writing
Students can evaluate the quality of a piece of writing using a rubric. Have students review the writing as a group and assign scores as a group. Ask them to respond with their scores and rationale using the numbered heads together strategy.
c.       Math
Numbered heads together can be used when solving math problems. Ask questions such as "What are the facts in this problem?" "Which strategy would be most appropriate?" and "What solution did your group agree on?"
d.      Social Studies
NHT can be used after reading a chapter in a text, or after material has been presented. Ask clarifying questions about the text and have students find and discuss the answers. When groups are ready, review the answers using this strategy.
e.       Science
NHT can be used in preparation for a test or quiz. Allow time for students to study together in their groups and perhaps create questions that might be on the test or quiz. Using the numbered heads together strategy, ask questions about the material that will be on the test or quiz.

We can use Numbered Head Together for teaching reading, writing, speaking and any subjects out of English skills. Moreover, this is the example of implementing NHT in reading class for comprehending the text. Comprehension questions can be posed to groups, and might the students working together to find the answers. For example, when reading a story, such as a kind of narrative text like Cinderella and Snow White students can be given the task of analyzing one of the characters. They can be asked questions such as, "Which character traits are stated directly, and which are implied by the author?" and "What information do you get from the character's speech and actions?"
There are some steps for implementing NHT in reading class to comprehend the text, as follow:
1.      Number off the students in each group, up to four. If one group is smaller than the others have no. 3 answer for no. 4 as well. The teacher can give numbers or students can give numbers themselves.
2.      Teacher asks the students a question or sets a problem to solve or the teacher or the students ask a question based on the text the class is reading. It must be stressed that everyone in the group must be able to participate and answer the question.
3.      Give the enough limited time to the groups to do the task.
4.      Students in each group put their head together to come up with an answer or answer. They should also be ready to supply support for their answer(s) from the text and/or from other knowledge.
5.      The teacher calls a number from 1 to 4. The person with that number gives and explains their group’s answer.








E.     REFERENCES

Slavin, R. E. (2005). Cooperative Learning. Bandung: Nusa Media.
Trianto. (2010). Mendesain Pembelajaran Innovatif- Progresif. Jakarta: Kencana.
Isjoni. (2011). Cooperative Learning: Efektifitas Pembelajaran Kelompok. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Lie, A. (2008). Cooperative Learning. Jakarta: Grasindo.

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